Human history is composed of innumerable stories of migration. People have always been on the move continuously reconstructing and transforming social identities, places, and cultures. According to the United Nations, in 2013 there were 232 million international migrants (or 3.2% of the world’s population). Though international migration affects countries in both the Global North and South, ten countries host half of all international migrants (USA, Russia, Germany, Saudi Arabia, UK, France, Canada, Australia, and Spain). In the developed world, North America receives the largest number of migrants, while Europe has the highest percentage of migrants in proportion to its native population. Migration is also growing in Asia. The lion's share of refugees and displaced people live in close proximity to the land that they have fled, taxing the resources of neighboring countries. The rise in people seeking asylum reflects the profoundly precarious contemporary situation of people around the world in the face of war, environmental degradation, violence, and poverty. Increased refugeeism and global migration has been paralleled by a growing sense of moral panic and anxiety in many host societies. Migrants have often been constructed as the embodiment of otherness: representing images of inscrutable difference, cheap labor, and welfare fraud that are perceived as threatening the livelihood and identity of the nation and citizens. As political discourse in many industrialized countries has increasingly criminalized and stigmatized people who have had the experience of forced, undocumented or voluntary migration, discussions on the moral obligation to share a host country as a safe space for those in need of protection have been largely silenced.


My interest in migration and diversity focuses on the intersection of HIV/AIDS, social justice issues, and the complexity of the migration experience and identity in Finland and the European Union.


Clarke, Kris (2014) “And Then All of the Sudden, You’re Still Here with Bad Finnish”: North American Women’s Narratives of Cultural Adjustment in Finland. Journal of Finnish Studies. 17 (1 &2), 42-66.

Lee, Kham Yang and Clarke, Kris (2013) The Significance of Social Memory in 1.5 Generation Hmong-Americans: Implications for Culturally Competent Social Work Practice. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work. 22, (2), 162-177.

Clarke, Kris (2011) Migrants and the Emerging HIV Epidemic in Finland in the 1980s-1990s. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 1, (3), 137-145.

Clarke, Kris (2009) Negotiating Migrant Community Needs through Social Work Research: A Finnish Example. Qualitative Social Work Research, 8, (4), 8-27.

Clarke, Kris (2006) “Emerging Cultural Diversity in the Nordic Welfare State.” Aspects of Intercultural Dialogue: Theory, Research, Applications. (Edited by Nancy Aalto and Ewald Reuter) Cologne, Germany: Saxa Press.

Clarke, Kris (ed.) (2005) The Problematics of Well-Being: Experiences and Expectations of New Finns in the Finnish Welfare State. Tampere: University of Tampere Press, Research Reports, Series A, No. 9.

Clarke, Kris (2004) Invisible in Plain Sight – Cultural Diversity in Finnish Multicultural Social Care Education. Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 24, (1), 124-137.

Clarke, Kris (ed.) (2003) Welfare Research into Marginal Communities: Insider Perspectives on Health and Social Care. Tampere: University of Tampere Press, Research Reports, Series A, No. 8.

Clarke, Kris and Pösö, Tarja (eds.) (2001) African Communities in Northern Europe: Qualitative Studies on Community Understandings of HIV/AIDS. Amsterdam: Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

Bröring, Georg and Clarke, Kris (eds.) (2000) HIV/AIDS and STD Care and Support for Migrant and Ethnic Minority Communities. Amsterdam: Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. 

Clarke, Kris (2004) “Sisällä ja ulkona: maahanmuuttajien yhteisötutkimus.” [Inside and Out: Immigrants in Community Research] Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 6/2004, 630-641.

Clarke, Kris (2002) Policying Silence, Practicing Invisibility: Migrants Living with HIV/ AIDS in Finland. Social Work in Europe, 9, (3), 20-27.

Kris Clarke, Ph.D

Academic and social commentator
Helsinki, Finland

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